The Atrebates lived in what is now Berkshire, Sussex and parts of Hampshire. They were one of the most successful British Celtic tribes during the 1st and 2nd centuries BCE until after the Gallic wars when they perhaps fell out of favor with Rome for supporting Vercingetorix and their lead was taken by the Trinovantians.
The earliest coins used by the Atrebates were imported from Gaul and included the large and small flan staters and the very common Gallic war uniface staters. The 1st indigenous coinage were the Westerham staters, amoung the heaviest, about 6.5 gm (an thus assummed to be the earliest, 75 BCE?) British staters. A group of somewhat lighter, 6 gm abstract staters followed and were minted just prior to the Gallic wars about 55-45 BCE. These all were similar to the Gallic Ambiani staters with an anstract head of Apollo on the obverse, derived from Phillip II of Macedon tetradrachms, and horses and wheels on the reverse. The later horses are much more realistic and are characterized by having triple tails. Corresponding groups of quarter staters (called 'fractional' by van Arsdell) and a variety of fascinating silver units were also minted, many of the latter having typically Celticized heads on the obverses. Bronze was apparantly not used by the Atrabates until the turn of the Millenium during the dynastic period.
Kings, Warriors and Rulers: Dynastic Coinage
|Commius||45 - 30 BCE||COMMIOS||Fled to Britian after the fall of Vercingetorix at Alesia in 52 BCE|
|Tincomaros||30 - 25 BCE||
||Tincomaros, previously known as Tincommius, was apparantly the son of Commius. He was initially anti-Roman, like his father, but after visiting Augustus in Rome, after 16 BCE, suddenly changed his coin designs to copy those of the Emporer. Tincomaros was disposed by Eppilus and fled to Rome|
|Eppilus||10 BCE - 10 CE||
||Apparantly another son of Commius, Eppilus quickly replaced Tincomaros as tribal leader. He continused to issue coins from Calleva (Silchester) stylistically similar to those of Tincomaros, but, like a good Roman called himself REX. In about CE 1 he either invaded or fled to Kent and coins began to appear in the Cantii territory carrying his name. He issued a 'Victory' type stater with a Roman winged Victory on the obverse and A Celtic warrior carrying a carynx on a horse on the reverse. He was eventually defeated by Cunobeline of the Trinovantes and disappeared.|
|Verica||10 - 43 CE||
||Verica, also calling himself a son of Commius, ruled for over 30 years, but ended up losing the NE half of his territory to the Trinovantians, including the capital Calleva. He was probably the Berikos who asked Rome for help, thus inciting the Claudian invasions in 43 CE. Many of his later coins are copied directly from Roman prototypes.|
|Epaticcus||35 - 43 CE||
||Epaticcus may have been Trinovantian or Catuvellaunian and was certainly a sympathizer to the Northern tribes. His pursuits gradually eroded the territories controlled by Verica.|
(Caradog in Welsh)
|43 - 51 CE||CARA||Caratacus replaced Epatticus just before the Claudian invasion and led the Briton's resistence against the Romans, eventually fleeing to Wales and ending Atebatic coinage. Only 2 coins of Caratacus are known, a AR unit of the Bust/Roman eagle type and a AR minimum with a winged horse on the reverse, both common.|
|Cogidubnus||After 43 CE||Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus was probably a member of the Atrebatic ruling family, perhaps raised in Rome, who was elevated to client King by the Romans. He was a dominent figure in the area for over 30 years, but alas, was not allowed to issue coins.|